Based on the earlier GSM/EDGE and UMTS/HSPA technologies, Long-Term Evolution (LTE) is a wireless broadband communication technology for mobile devices and data terminals.
Features of LTE
- Enhanced voice quality
- Fast Speed
- covers a range of many different bands
- Low data transfer latencies
- Uplink and downlink Carrier aggregation
- Packet-switched radio interface
- Support MBSFN
What is LTE & how it works
It does this by employing a new radio interface and enhancing the underlying network, both of which are improvements over the previous standards.
Carriers that already operate GSM/UMTS and CDMA2000 networks can upgrade to LTE. In order to use LTE in all countries where it is offered, a phone must support several LTE frequency.
The standard is defined in the 3GPP’s Release 8 document series, with some minor changes
mentioned in Release 9. Although LTE has been promoted as “4G LTE” and “Advanced 4G,” the
technology behind it does not match the technical requirements for a 4G wireless service as outlined in
the 3GPP Release 8 and 9 document series for LTE Advanced.
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Originally, the requirements were laid out by the ITU-R organization in the IMT Advanced specification,
but due to market pressure and the substantial improvements that WiMAX, Evolved High Speed Packet
Access, and LTE bring to the original 3G technologies, the ITU decided that LTE and the aforementioned
technologies can be called 4G technologies.
The LTE Advanced specification has been formally verified as meeting the ITU-R criteria for IMT-Advanced. ITU has categorized existing 4G technologies, including LTE Advanced and WiMAX-Advanced, as “True 4G” to set them apart from LTE Advanced and WiMAX-Advanced.
A significant portion of the LTE standard is devoted to bringing current 3G UMTS networks up to the
level of what will one day be considered 4G mobile communications networks. Transitioning from the
current UMTS circuit + packet switching integrated network to an all-IP flat architecture system
necessitates a great deal of work targeted at simplifying the architecture of the system. LTE’s air
interface is known as E-UTRA. The most notable characteristics are:
Using 4×4 antennas and 20 MHz of spectrum, we can achieve peak download speeds of up to 299.6
Mbit/s and peak upload speeds of up to 75.4 Mbit/s, depending on the type of user equipment. Five
distinct categories of terminals, ranging from those primarily designed for making and receiving phone
calls to those capable of handling maximum data speeds, have been established. The 20 MHz bandwidth
will be supported by all terminals.
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Handoff and connection setup times are also reduced compared to older radio access technologies, and
data transfer latency is as low as 5 milliseconds for tiny IP packets under ideal conditions.
Mobility enhancements, including the ability to support terminals travelling at speeds of up to 350 km/h
(220 mph) or 500 km/h (310 mph), depending on the frequency used.
To save energy, the uplink uses single-carrier frequency-division multiple-access while the downlink uses
Half-duplex FDD and frequency-division duplex (FDD) communication systems support using the same
radio access technology are also supported.
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The International Telecommunication Union (ITU-R) endorses the usage of all bands in use by existing
Greater spectrum adaptability achieved with the standardisation of cells with widths of 1, 4, 3, 5, 10, 15,
and 20 megahertz. (W-CDMA is limited to 5-MHz slices, which might cause deployment issues in places
where that amount of spectrum is widely used for older technologies like 2G GSM and cdmaOne).
All cell sizes from femtocells and picocells (tens of metres in radius) to macrocells (one hundred
kilometres, or sixty-two miles) in radius are supported. Lower frequency bands are better suited for use
in rural regions, with an optimal cell size of 5 km (3.1 miles), reasonable performance at 30 km (19
miles), and support for cell sizes of up to 100 km.
5G vs LTE (Long-Term Evolution)
|5G vs LTE Speed||5G vs LTE Coverage||LTE vs 5G Capacity|
|LTE offers speeds of up to 100Mbps||LTE has widespread coverage||LTE can support up to 1000 devices per cell|
|while 5G can deliver speeds of up to 1Gbps.||but 5G is still in the early stages of deployment.||while 5G can support up to 10,000 devices per cell.|
High-speed mobile broadband is supported by using larger frequency bands (such as 2.6 GHz in EU) in densely populated areas. In this scenario, the size of a single cell might be as little as 1 km (0.62 miles).
200+ concurrent data clients (users online) supported per 5 MHz cell. Reduced complexity: To be more specific, only eNode Bs make up the network side of E-UTRAN.
Legacy standards (such GSM/EDGE, UMTS, and CDMA2000) are supported for interoperability and
coexistence. Starting a call or data transfer on an LTE network in one location will automatically switch
to another network, such as GSM/GPRS, UMTS based on W-CDMA, or even a 3GPP2 network like
cdmaOne or CDMA2000 if coverage drops.
Carrier aggregation both uplink and downlink.
Radio interface based on packet switching.