LTE (Long-Term Evolution) AI

LTE (Long-Term Evolution)
LTE (Long-Term Evolution)



Based on the earlier GSM/EDGE and UMTS/HSPA technologies, Long-Term Evolution (LTE) is a wireless broadband communication technology for mobile devices and data terminals.

LTE is a fourth-generation (4G) wireless standard that provides improved bigger network capacity and fast speed for cellphones and many other cellular devices as compared with third-generation (3G) technology.

Features of LTE

  • Enhanced voice quality
  • Fast Speed
  • covers a range of many different bands
  • Low data transfer latencies
  • Uplink and downlink Carrier aggregation
  • Packet-switched radio interface
  • Support MBSFN

What is LTE & how it works

It does this by employing a new radio interface and enhancing the underlying network, both of which are improvements over the previous standards.

Carriers that already operate GSM/UMTS and CDMA2000 networks can upgrade to LTE. In order to use LTE in all countries where it is offered, a phone must support several LTE frequency.

lte efficieny table
lte efficieny table


The standard is defined in the 3GPP’s Release 8 document series, with some minor changes
mentioned in Release 9. Although LTE has been promoted as “4G LTE” and “Advanced 4G,” the
technology behind it does not match the technical requirements for a 4G wireless service as outlined in
the 3GPP Release 8 and 9 document series for LTE Advanced.

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Originally, the requirements were laid out by the ITU-R organization in the IMT Advanced specification,
but due to market pressure and the substantial improvements that WiMAX, Evolved High Speed Packet
Access, and LTE bring to the original 3G technologies, the ITU decided that LTE and the aforementioned
technologies can be called 4G technologies.

The LTE Advanced specification has been formally verified as meeting the ITU-R criteria for IMT-Advanced. ITU has categorized existing 4G technologies, including LTE Advanced and WiMAX-Advanced, as “True 4G” to set them apart from LTE Advanced and WiMAX-Advanced.

download data rates in lte
download data rates in lte

A significant portion of the LTE standard is devoted to bringing current 3G UMTS networks up to the
level of what will one day be considered 4G mobile communications networks. Transitioning from the
current UMTS circuit + packet switching integrated network to an all-IP flat architecture system
necessitates a great deal of work targeted at simplifying the architecture of the system. LTE’s air
interface is known as E-UTRA. The most notable characteristics are:

Using 4×4 antennas and 20 MHz of spectrum, we can achieve peak download speeds of up to 299.6
Mbit/s and peak upload speeds of up to 75.4 Mbit/s, depending on the type of user equipment. Five
distinct categories of terminals, ranging from those primarily designed for making and receiving phone
calls to those capable of handling maximum data speeds, have been established. The 20 MHz bandwidth
will be supported by all terminals.

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Handoff and connection setup times are also reduced compared to older radio access technologies, and
data transfer latency is as low as 5 milliseconds for tiny IP packets under ideal conditions.
Mobility enhancements, including the ability to support terminals travelling at speeds of up to 350 km/h
(220 mph) or 500 km/h (310 mph), depending on the frequency used.
To save energy, the uplink uses single-carrier frequency-division multiple-access while the downlink uses
orthogonal FDMA.
Half-duplex FDD and frequency-division duplex (FDD) communication systems support using the same
radio access technology are also supported.

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The International Telecommunication Union (ITU-R) endorses the usage of all bands in use by existing
IMT systems.
Greater spectrum adaptability achieved with the standardisation of cells with widths of 1, 4, 3, 5, 10, 15,
and 20 megahertz. (W-CDMA is limited to 5-MHz slices, which might cause deployment issues in places
where that amount of spectrum is widely used for older technologies like 2G GSM and cdmaOne).

All cell sizes from femtocells and picocells (tens of metres in radius) to macrocells (one hundred
kilometres, or sixty-two miles) in radius are supported. Lower frequency bands are better suited for use
in rural regions, with an optimal cell size of 5 km (3.1 miles), reasonable performance at 30 km (19
miles), and support for cell sizes of up to 100 km.

5G vs LTE (Long-Term Evolution)

5G vs LTE Speed 5G vs LTE Coverage LTE vs 5G Capacity
LTE offers speeds of up to 100Mbps LTE has widespread coverage LTE can support up to 1000 devices per cell
while 5G can deliver speeds of up to 1Gbps. but 5G is still in the early stages of deployment. while 5G can support up to 10,000 devices per cell.


High-speed mobile broadband is supported by using larger frequency bands (such as 2.6 GHz in EU) in densely populated areas. In this scenario, the size of a single cell might be as little as 1 km (0.62 miles).
200+ concurrent data clients (users online) supported per 5 MHz cell. Reduced complexity: To be more specific, only eNode Bs make up the network side of E-UTRAN.

Legacy standards (such GSM/EDGE, UMTS, and CDMA2000) are supported for interoperability and
coexistence. Starting a call or data transfer on an LTE network in one location will automatically switch
to another network, such as GSM/GPRS, UMTS based on W-CDMA, or even a 3GPP2 network like
cdmaOne or CDMA2000 if coverage drops.
Carrier aggregation both uplink and downlink.
Radio interface based on packet switching.

Help for the MBSFN (multicast-broadcast single-frequency network). Because of this capability, services like Mobile TV can be provided over the LTE network, making it competitive with DVB-H-based TV broadcasts that can be received only by devices that are LTE-compatible.
3g vs 4g vs 5g
3g vs 4g vs 5g

FAQ related to LTE

Why is LTE called Long Term Evolution?
Because it is the next generation (4G) in a progression from GSM, a 2G standard, through UMTS, the 3G technologies based on GSM, GPP developers gave the technology the term “Long Term Evolution.” The higher layers of LTE handle mixed data, phone, video, and message traffic and are based on TCP/IP.
Was LTE or Long Term Evolution released?
It is an international standard for 4G wireless data transmission, the 2008-launched fourth generation of mobile network technology. The third generation (3G) or Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (3G) networks have been replaced by the fourth generation (4G LTE) networks.
Is LTE going to be phased out?
No, there won’t be a 4G LTE shutdown for at least ten years. The important thing to keep in mind is that, regardless matter how quickly the 5G network expands, 4G won’t be going away anytime soon. Carriers will continue to employ 4G LTE networks long beyond 2030, according to the proposal.
What is the future of LTE?
According to the GSMA, all cellular technologies have a life cycle that lasts around 20 years from the time of inception to peak adoption, with a 10-year technological transition in between. This is seen in Figure 3. If this forecast is accurate, LTE’s peak adoption will occur in 2030.
Will LTE work on 5G?
The expansion of 5G networks does not portend the demise of 4G. Long into the next decade, mobile operators will continue to offer their customers’ cell service on the 4G LTE networks that are already in place. Instead of completely replacing 4G, 5G networks will complement it. The result is that 4G technology will continue to be used by 5G-capable mobile phones.
Is LTE better than 5G?
LTE is the best option if you want high speeds with the broadest population coverage. However, 5G is the way to go if you’re seeking for the most recent and cutting-edge technology with the promise for quicker speeds and greater capacity.
Will 5G make 4G LTE faster?
With the capacity to offer speeds as fast as Wi-Fi, 5G has the potential to be far quicker than 4G and 3G speed. You can enjoy cutting-edge technology like VR, AR, autonomous driving, and connect even more devices than ever before with higher speeds of up to 20 Gbps. You can download an entire 8K movie in only a few seconds.
How much faster is 6G than 5G?
With an air latency of less than 100 microseconds and operating at terahertz frequency bands, 6G will have a peak data throughput of 1,000 gigabits/s. When comparing network speeds between 5G and 6G, 6G is anticipated to be 100 times faster than 5G, with improved dependability and more network coverage.

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